First NameMuhammad
Last NameAli Khan
Supervisor NameDr. Jane Sunderland
UniversityLancaster University
Keywordslanguage-in-education policy, fee-charging private English-medium schools, fee structure, notuition- fee, public sector Urdu-medium school,


In this thesis, I present a study in which I investigate language-in-education policy and practices in four schools in Pakistan: School (A) and (B) are both fee-charging private English-medium schools, located in Karachi, with a wide margin between their fee structure. School (C) is a notuition- fee, public sector Urdu-medium school, located in Quetta, north-west of Pakistan, andSchool (D) is also a no-tuition-fee Urdu-medium religious school in Karachi, locally known as a Dini Madrassah. The study aimed to address the following over-arching research questions:

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